This page hosts the documentation of the SmartCGMS software architecture and all of its components.

The documentation is being updated to acommodate the recent improvements. Please, be patient, we are working on it...

Signal model

A signal model is a provider of a given advertised signal. The SmartCGMS provides calculated signal filter, which is responsible for retrieving the signal model values at the right time.

The signal model advertises supported signals in the calculated_signal_ids descriptor field. The reference_signal_ids array contains a reference signal GUID on a respective position. This reference signal triggers the calculated signal recalculation. See below for details.

The model and its signals are stateless (i.e.; they cannot create their own state), and thus serves only as a wrapper for a single stateless calculation with a constant memory pool. However, they can access the signal history of all signals belonging to a single segment. This means, that the calculation wrapper does not operate with constant memory pool and grows in time with more incoming values. This could potentially be a drawback of using the signal models and therefore it is discouraged in favor of discrete models and native scripting interface.

Descriptor of a signal model contains scgms::NModel_Flags::Signal_Model in the flags field. The model itself is not instantiated. Instead, every advertised signal must be created by the do_create_signal call.


A model itself does not have a class-level interface. Instead, its contract promises, that the library exporting the signal model is able to construct an instance of scgms::ISignal with the advertised GUID. For more information about the signal interface and implementation, see signal subpage.

The only significant difference, that one must pay attention to when implementing a signal model is, that the signal entity (a child of scgms::ISignal) produced by this model must properly implement the Get_Continuous_Levels and Get_Default_Parameters methods. The former method calculates the actual values of the signal, optionally based on a set of other signals. The latter retrieves a default parameter set for the signal. Note, that the default parameter set for a signal may differ from the default parameters given in the descriptor, as a single model may emit multiple signals with different meanings, but with the same shared philosophy (hence their coupling within a single model).

To make the development of custom signal models (and their calculated signals) easy and clean, the SDK implements the CCommon_Calculated_Signal class implementation, which implements the unneeded method stubs. As the signal interface is common for all signals (not just calculated ones), we may safely return E_NOTIMPL as a result of Get_Discrete_Levels, Get_Discrete_Bounds and Update_Levels.

Time segments and signals

The signal models work with the principles of time segments. Time segment philosophy is described as a container of signals in a separate page. For the purpose of signal models and signal implementations, the API defines the scgms::ITime_Segment interface. Its definition is as follows:

class ITime_Segment : public virtual refcnt::IReferenced {
        virtual HRESULT IfaceCalling Get_Signal(const GUID *signal_id, ISignal **signal) = 0;

The sole method here is Get_Signal, which serves a single purpose - to return the signal entity identified by given GUID. This could either retrieve already stored signal, or create it.

SmartCGMS SDK then defines two reference-counting pointers to this interface. You can use the scgms::STime_Segment for strong reference counting or scgms::WTime_Segment for weak reference counting. Both of these wrappers define a C++ wrapper method to retrieve a signal that shares the name with the interface method, but returns scgms::SSignal instead. For more information about signal interfaces and classes, see the signal page.

Example implementation

At first, we usually create a header defines for our model to describe the purpose and basic idea. As an example, let us define a model, that takes the interstitial glucose signal from the segment at requested time and adds a sine wave to it, just for the sake of demonstration. Please note, that this is a very simple example of such a model and merely describes the interface and operation of signal models.

Similar to other entities, we often want to define GUIDs, structures and other relevant reusable attributes in a descriptor header file.

#include <rtl/guid.h>

namespace example_model {

    const size_t param_count = 2;
    const double default_parameters[param_count] = { 1.0, 1.0 };

    struct TParameters {
        union {
            struct {
                double example_amplitude;
                double example_frequency;
            double vector[param_count];

    constexpr GUID model_id = { 0xac716662, 0x3fb, 0x497f, { 0x88, 0x54, 0xde, 0x7a, 0xf1, 0x46, 0x72, 0x5e } };   // {AC716662-03FB-497F-8854-DE7AF146725E}
    constexpr GUID signal_id = { 0x315feca4, 0x720b, 0x4881, { 0x92, 0x11, 0xae, 0x75, 0x13, 0x60, 0x7b, 0x46 } }; // {315FECA4-720B-4881-9211-AE7513607B46}

Now we define the signal class (for detailed method description, see the signal page), that complies with the signal model requirements. For convenience, we use the common CCommon_Calculated_Signal class as a parent, which implements unneeded method stubs. Note the definition of Get_Continuous_Levels and Get_Default_Parameters, which are important for the signal model-produced signals. Also note, that we retain needed signal references in the constructor, so we don't need to store the time segment reference any further:

class CExample_Model_Signal : public virtual CCommon_Calculated_Signal {

        // stored reference to a different signal within a segment; this is retrieved during object construction
        scgms::SSignal mIGSignal;

        CExample_Model_Signal(scgms::WTime_Segment segment) : CCommon_Calculated_Signal(segment), mIGSignal{ segment.Get_Signal(scgms::signal_IG) } {
            if (!refcnt::Shared_Valid_All(mIGSignal))
                throw std::runtime_error{ "Could not retrieve IG signal from segment (fatal error)" };

        virtual ~CExample_Model_Signal() = default;

        // scgms::ISignal iface
        virtual HRESULT IfaceCalling Get_Continuous_Levels(scgms::IModel_Parameter_Vector *params, const double* times, double* const levels,
                                                           const size_t count, const size_t derivation_order) const final {

            // 1) convert generic parameter container to model-specific parameter set container
            example_model::TParameters parameters = scgms::Convert_Parameters<example_model::TParameters>(params, example_model::default_parameters);
            HRESULT rc = S_OK;

            // 2) retrieve IG values - for some reason we may base our model outputs on IG
            std::vector<double> ig_values(count);
            rc = mIGSignal->Get_Continuous_Levels(nullptr, times,, count, scgms::apxNo_Derivation);
            if (!Succeeded(rc)) {
                return rc;

            // 3) model output based on input values

            // example model output - sine wave added to IG levels for no apparent reason
            for (size_t i = 0; i < count; i++) {

                // if not IG is available (should not happen at all - IG is a reference signal, hence is always available at a given time), output NaN
                // quiet_NaN on model output signals the calculate filter to "ask for a value again later"
                if (std::isnan(ig_values[i])) {
                    levels[i] = std::numeric_limits<double>::quiet_NaN();
                } else {
                    levels[i] = ig_values[i] + parameters.example_amplitude * std::sin(times[i] * parameters.example_frequency);

            return rc;

        virtual HRESULT IfaceCalling Get_Default_Parameters(scgms::IModel_Parameter_Vector *parameters) const final {
            double *params = const_cast<double*>(example_model::default_parameters);
            return parameters->set(params, params + example_model::param_count);

Now we implement the descriptor block:

namespace example_model {

    const scgms::NModel_Parameter_Value param_types[param_count] = { scgms::NModel_Parameter_Value::mptDouble, scgms::NModel_Parameter_Value::mptDouble };

    const wchar_t *param_names[param_count] = { L"Example amplitude", L"Example frequency" };
    const wchar_t *param_columns[param_count] = { L"amplitude", L"frequency" };

    const double lower_bound[param_count] = { 0.0 };
    const double upper_bound[param_count] = { 2.0 };

    const size_t signal_count = 1;

    const GUID signal_ids[signal_count] = { signal_id };
    const wchar_t *signal_names[signal_count] = { L"Example signal" };
    const GUID reference_signal_ids[signal_count] = { scgms::signal_IG };

    const scgms::TModel_Descriptor model_descriptor = {
        L"Example model",

    // for more info, see signal subpage
    const scgms::TSignal_Descriptor signal_descriptor = {

Similarly to the discrete model, we now have to export a set of symbols (functions), that exports model and signal descriptors.

const std::array<scgms::TModel_Descriptor, 1> model_descriptions = { { example_model::model_descriptor } };

const std::array<scgms::TSignal_Descriptor, 1> signal_descriptions = { { example_model::signal_descriptor } };

HRESULT IfaceCalling do_get_model_descriptors(scgms::TModel_Descriptor **begin, scgms::TModel_Descriptor **end) {
    return do_get_descriptors(model_descriptions, begin, end);

extern "C" HRESULT IfaceCalling do_get_signal_descriptors(scgms::TSignal_Descriptor * *begin, scgms::TSignal_Descriptor * *end) {
    return do_get_descriptors(signal_descriptions, begin, end);

Unlike discrete models, we won't export any model creation functions, but rather a signal creation one, as mentioned above:

extern "C" HRESULT IfaceCalling do_create_signal(const GUID *calc_id, scgms::ITime_Segment *segment, const GUID* approx_id, scgms::ISignal **signal) {

    if ((calc_id == nullptr) || (segment == nullptr)) {
        return E_INVALIDARG;

    if (*calc_id == example_model::signal_id) {
        scgms::WTime_Segment wsegment{ segment };
        return Manufacture_Object<CExample_Model_Signal>(signal, wsegment);

    return E_NOTIMPL;